Posted on May 14, 2009 by Peter Turney
In predicate logic, the concept red ball is represented as a combination of the concepts of red and ball. We can define the predicate RedBall(x) as (Red(x) & Ball(x)). Logical atomism views the world in terms of compound predicates, such as RedBall(x), that are built up from atomic predicates, such as Red(x) and Ball(x). Good old-fashioned AI (GOFAI) research almost always assumes a kind of logical atomism. Cyc, for example, represents knowledge using a form of logical atomism. Even those researchers who reject GOFAI still tend to assume logical atomism. Statistical and connectionist models of concepts typically view red ball as a combination of red and ball. I believe that we should turn this view on its head. That is, red ball comes first (is more basic, more primitive); red and ball come later (are more complex, more refined).
In Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), we represent the semantics of red and ball with vectors, in which the elements are derived from the frequencies of the terms red and ball in various contexts. For those who are familiar with logic, it is natural to think of representing red ball by some mathematical operation on the vectors for red and ball. For example, we might add the red vector to the ball vector. One problem with this idea is that addition is not sensitive to order; thus house boat and boat house would have the same vector, although they have different meanings. One solution to this problem is a mathematical operation on vectors that is sensitive to order, such as the tensor product or the circular convolution.
Several papers explore this vector combination approach to representing compound predicates:
Plate (1995) describes his approach as follows:
The assumption here is that we build up the complex structure bite(spot, jane) from simple atomic elements bite, spot, and jane. But I suggest that the atomic element is bite(spot, jane), and that we construct bite, spot, and jane from this atomic element.
Suppose we have a third-order tensor of the form pattern × word × word. The predicate P(x,y) is a pattern (“x bit y“), x is a word (“spot”), y is another word (“jane”), and the triple <P(x,y),x,y> is a cell (<”x bit y“,”spot”,”jane”>) in this third-order tensor. The concept “bite” corresponds to the slice (a matrix cut out of the tensor) <”x bit y“,*,*>, the concept “spot” is the slice <*,”spot”,*>, and the concept “jane” is the slice <*,*,”jane”>.
In this representation, the atomic elements (tensor cells; scalars) are whole events (“I see a red ball”, “Spot bit Jane”), and abstract concepts (“red”, “bite”) are complicated structures (tensor slices; matrices), composed of these atomic elements. This turns the usual picture upside-down. There is nothing “simple” or “atomic” about the concept “circle”. It is a complex structure, composed of all of our atomic experiences of events that contained some aspect of circularity.
Using a vector combination approach, Jones and Mewhort (2007) report a score of 57.81% (see page 18) on multiple-choice synonym questions from the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language). Using the opposite approach (Turney, 2007), a third-order pattern × word × word tensor achieves a score of 83.75% (see page 22).